Throat, Ear, Nose Diseases

Otolaryngology is the branch of medicine which deals with the treatment of diseases associated with the ear, nose and throat, along with the head and the neck. It requires 15 years of education and training along with a certification from the American Board of Otolaryngology to treat these ailments. Some specialists even take up two years of a fellowship program to be specialized in one of the seven subspeciality areas of this branch of medicine.

What are the Some of Different Types of ENT Ailments
Ear Disorders: Tinnitus, ear infections like otitis externa, otitis interna, otitis media, Meniere's disease, deafness, ear wax or cerumen, Cholesteatoma, Eustachian tube malfunction, Otosclerosis, Presbyacusis, Vestibular neuritis, Acoustic neuroma and other hearing disorders.

Nose Disorders: Concha bullosa, chronic atrophic rhinitis, Choanal atresia, inverted papilloma, nasal septal abscess, nasal polyp, fractured nasal bones, nasal septum perforation, nasal septum deviation, nosebleed, nasal septal hematoma, nasal turbinate hypertrophy, post-natal drip, rhinitis, non-infective non-allergic rhinitis, rhinophyma, rhinorrhea, rhinitis medicamentosa.

Esophagus Disorders: GERD, heartburn, Barrett's Esophagus, Cardiospasm and cancer.

Salivary Gland Disorders: Sialolithiasis, sialadentitis, benign neoplasms, Frey's syndrome and Glomus tumours.

Taste and Smell Disorders: Distorted, decreased and completed inability to taste and smell namely, Dysgeusia, Hypogeusia, Ageusia, Dysosmia, Hyposmia and Anosmia.

Thyroid Diseases: Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, endemic goitre, multinodular goiter, diffuse goitre, thyroid adenoma, Lymphomas, Cretinism, Hashimoto's disease and Grave's disease.

Larynx Disorders: Laryngomalacia, Acute infective laryngitis, Chronic laryngitis, Congenital laryngeal web, Epiglottitis, Laryngeal spasm, Laryngeal oedema, Laryngeal perichondritis, Vocal cord polyp, Vocal cord nodule, Vocal cord paralysis, Subglottic stenosis, Spastic dysphonia and Functional dysphonia.

Neck Disorders: Neck abscess, branchial cyst, thyroglossal cyst, cervical lymphadenopathy and thyroglossal cyst.

What are Seven Subspecialities of ENT Diseases?
Otology / Neurotology: Tinnitus, ear infection, swimmer's ear, hearing loss, balance disorders, dizziness, pain in the ear, face or neck and birth related disorders related to the inner and outer ears.

Head and Neck: Cancer of the voice box, lump in the neck or thyroid, facial trauma, deformities of the face, banign and malignant tumors and infectious diseases. There are several nerves of this region which are connected to the organs of sight, smell, face and hearing.

Pediatric Otolaryngology: Allergy or sinus diseases, airway problems, asthma, tonsil and adenoid infection in babies and children.

Rhinology: Nose bleeds, stuffy nose, loss of smell and sinus disorders.

Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery: Surgical treatment for hair loss, deviated septum, face lift, drooping eyelids, cleft palate and nose reconstruction.

Allergy: Seasonal and perennial rhinitis, laryngitis, sore throat, hay fever and chronic sinusitis.

Laryngology: GERD, swelling disorders, hoarseness and sore throat.

Conclusion: In some of the cases, the above mentioned conditions are present at the time of birth owing to certain damage caused to the fetus in the mother's womb. A mutation in genes is technically responsible for the formation of both benign and malignant types of cancer in the ENT organs. Fatal accidents, poor lifestyle related habits and environmental factors are equally responsible for the rest of the ailments. While some of these diseases and disorders can be avoided by becoming more health conscious, others require immediate medical intervention for a timely treatment.

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